Isaac Martens, Antonis Vamvakeros, Raphael Chattot, Maria V. Blanco, Miika Rasola, Janne Pusa, Simon D.M. Jacque, Dan Bizzotto, David P. Wilkinson, Bastian Ruffmann, Stefan Heidemann, Veijo Honkimäki and Jakub Drnec
Journal of Power Sources, 437(2019), 226906,
Publication year: 2019

We have constructed a 5  cm2 proton exchange membrane hydrogen fuel cell optimized for transparency of high energy X-rays. This cell allows for in situ elastic scattering measurements (WAXS, SAXS) during electrochemical operation with minimal trade-offs in cell performance vs benchtop designs, and is capable of reaching automotive current densities. A key feature is that the beam enters the cell at grazing incidence to the electrodes, massively increasing the effective pathlength and therefore the signal-to-background ratio. The 360 degrees transparency in the plane of the sample permits imaging coupled with advanced techniques, such as X-ray diffraction computed tomography.

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